Nuovo test per il tumore alla prostata - science
The purpose of this study was to determine, when measuring prostate volume by TRUS, whether height test della prostata TRUS more accurately determined by transaxial or midsagittal scanning. Sixteen patients who between March and March underwent both preoperative TRUS and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included in this study.
Prostate volume measured by TRUS, regardless of whether height was determined transaxially or midsagittally, correlated closely with real specimen volume. A paired sample test, however, indicated that TRUS prostate volumes determined transaxially showed test della prostata TRUS higher correlation coefficient 0. Prostate volume measured by TRUS closely correlates with real prostate volume. Furthermore, we suggest that when measuring prostate volume in test della prostata TRUS way, height is more accurately determined by transaxial than by midsagittal scanning.
Since prostate volume may influence the operative approach in patients test della prostata TRUS prostatism, its estimation is of concern to urologists. Prostate volume has been measured by various methods including digital rectal examination, cystourethrography, urethrocystoscopy, and urethral pressure profile, but all of these are inaccurate 1 - 3. For this reason, ultrasound scanning has gained wide popularity in the past few years 4 - Three different ultrasound approaches are available: the transrectal, the transurethral, and the transabdominal, though prostate volume test della prostata TRUS using the transrectal approach appears to be most accurate 4 Three commonly used prostate volume measurement techniques in transrectal ultrasonography TRUS are planimetry calculation, prolate ellipse volume calculation, and an ellipsoid volume measurement technique.
Prolate ellipse volume calculation is fast and precise, and its universal availability test della prostata TRUS it practical for routine clinical application. Transverse diameter width is defined as the maximal transverse diameter at mid-gland level, while longitudinal diameter length is defined as the distance from the proximal external sphincter to the urinary bladder Anteroposterior diameter height may be measured in two planes-axial and sagittal.
Most authors have employed midsagittal scanning, but some have measured the diameter perpendicular to the transverse diameter seen on transaxial scans By comparing the findings test della prostata TRUS real specimen volume, we aimed to determine whether height is more accurately determined by transaxial or midsagittal scanning.
Sixteen patients aged between 51 and 73 mean, 62 years who underwent preoperative TRUS and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included in this study. Height arrow was measured by transaxial scanning 3. Height arrow was measured by midsagittal scanning 3. Specimen volume was The volume of gross pathologic specimens prostate only was calculated using the formula for prolate ellipse volume calculation, measuring three unequal axes of the prostatectomy specimen within 1hr of excision.
Triaxial measurements of the prostate were thus obtained. The transverse diameter was recorded at the point of maximal transverse diameter perpendicular to the anteroposterior plane of the prostate. The anterior-posterior diameter was recorded in the transverse plane at a point perpendicular to the greatest transverse diameter, while the longitudinal diameter was recorded as the distance between the junction of the bladder neck and the prostate, and the prostatic apex at the genitourinary diaphragm.
Prior to measurement, all specimens were immersed in normal saline to minimize tissue dessication. Statistical analysis using test della prostata TRUS paired t test was used to determine the difference between the volume measured by TRUS and real specimen volume. A paired sample test was used for correlation of these two volume measurements. Real specimen volume test della prostata TRUS Prostate volume measured by TRUS using height determined from transaxial scans was test della prostata TRUS Prostate volume test della prostata TRUS either transaxially test della prostata TRUS midsagittally correlated closely with real specimen volume.
A paired sample test, however, showed that TRUS prostate volumes determined transaxially showed a higher correlation coefficient 0.
Correlation between prostate volume measured by TRUS and real prostate volume measured after radical prostatectomy. When height was determined transaxially rather than midsagitally, prostate volumes measured by TRUS showed higher correlation coefficient 0. In the early stages of prostate volume measurement by TRUS, maximal height and width measurements were obtained by axial scanning at the mid-gland level which appeared largest. Length was defined as the distance from the proximal external sphincter to the bladder base, as seen on midsagittal scans To avoid the salami effect, however, height measurement was corrected by sagittal projection in a plane perpendicular to length measurement: salami can be sliced in many different ways; to obtain larger slices, some prefer to cut it obliquely It has been found that height measured transaxially was accurate, and high correlation with real volume was found 11but as far as we know, no previous study has investigated whether prostate volume measured by TRUS is more accurately calculated using the height measurement obtained by transaxial scanning or by midsaggital.
Thus, we determined whether, when measuring prostate volume by TRUS, height is more accurately determined by transaxial or midsagittal scanning, comparing the volume finding thus obtained with real specimen volume. A paired sample test, however, showed that TRUS prostate volume determined transaxially showed a higher correlation coefficient 0.
We therefore suggest that when determining prostate volume by TRUS, volumes calculated using the height measurement obtained transaxially are more accurate. Terris et al. Likewise, definition between the base of the prostate and the seminal vesicle and bladder neck is often unclear. Accurate height, they believe, is more difficult to determine by midsagittal scanning test della prostata TRUS by transaxial. Using experimental models, Kim et al. They concluded that the transaxial mode was more accurate.
Our results are supported by the two studies above. Test della prostata TRUS we compared the prostate volume obtained by TRUS with real specimen volume, we believe that our study was test della prostata TRUS physiologic than that of kim et al.
In addition, prostate weight or volume of water displaced may provide a more precise measure of prostate size; manipulation of the pathologic specimen removal of seminal vesicles; dissection of periprostatic fat, connective tissue, and residual bladder neck tissue prior to sectioning may, however influence the accuracy of test della prostata TRUS findings.
Because we calculated specimen volume using the formula for prolate ellipsoids with three unequal axes as described for TRUS prostate volumeour result may be more accurate. During prostate volume measurement by TRUS and processing of the prostate specimen, our study suffered from several limitations.
First, since ultrasound is a dynamic modality, operator-dependent factors may contribute to the differences observed between TRUS-derived prostate volume estimates and the volume of the corresponding test della prostata TRUS. Second, after surgical removal of the prostate, varying amounts of residual tissue are left behind, depending on the surgeon and the surgical method; a comparison of the volume of surgically removed tissue with ultrasonically estimated volume may, therefore, be inaccurate.
Henneberry et al. In our study, prostatectomy was performed by open surgery, and we therefore expected less prostate tissue shrinkage. The value of our study is that we measured prostate volume by TRUS using the height determined by transaxial and midsagittal scanning, and then comparing our finding with a real prostatic specimen. Thus, we investigated which method was most accurate and therefore most useful for clinical evaluation and determination.
In conclusion, prostate volume measured by TRUS closely correlates with real prostate volume. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Korean J Radiol v.
Korean J Radiol. Published online Jun Find articles by Sung Bin Park. Find articles by Jae Kyun Kim. Find articles by Sung Hoon Choi. Find articles by Han Na Noh.
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Corresponding author. Telephone:Fax: Received Oct 19; Accepted Jun 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine, when measuring prostate volume by TRUS, whether height is more accurately determined by transaxial or midsagittal scanning. Materials and Methods Sixteen test della prostata TRUS who between March and March underwent both preoperative TRUS and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer test della prostata TRUS included in test della prostata TRUS study.
Results Prostate volume measured by TRUS, regardless of whether height was determined transaxially or midsagittally, correlated closely with real specimen volume. Open in a separate window. References 1. Significance of test della prostata TRUS weight in prostatism. Urologia Internationalis. Meyhoff HH, Hald T. Are doctors able to assess prostatic size? Scand J Urol Nephrol. Accuracy in preoperative estimation of prostatic size.
Measurements of size and weight of prostate by means of transrectal ultrasonotomography. Tohoku J Exp Med. Transabdominal ultrasound in the evaluation of prostate size. Suprapubic transvesical sonography of the prostate: determination of prostate size. Eur Urol. Smith HJ, Haveland H. Preoperative and postoperative volumetry of the prostate by transabdominal ultrasonography.
Br J Urol. Estimation of prostatic size by suprapubic ultrasonography. J Urol. Sonometrics of the prostate. Trasrectal ultrasonic volume determination of the prostate-preoperative and postoperative study. Determination of prostate volume with transrectal US for cancer screening. Accuracy of in vitro and in vivo techniques. The accuracy of transrectal ultrasound prostate volume estimation: clinical correlations.
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