Kubesova Sobeslav 2018 Veselka Part 4
Our objective is to assess the effects of low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles on benign prostate hyperplasia BPH. The histopathological damage to prostate cells was assessed via transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy.
Histopathologically, the prostate cells exhibited nuclear chromatin contraction, mitochondrial swelling, degranulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, basement membrane rupture and cell apoptosis in the G2 and G3 groups; it was especially obvious in the G3 group, while no changes were observed in the control and G1 groups.
Low-frequency ultrasound is effective in treating BPH; low-frequency ultrasound Veselka e BPH with microbubbles improves the treatment efficacy. Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate, ranking among the 10 most common diseases in aging men.
Currently, the management of BPH involves non-surgical and surgical techniques. Alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are common medical options due to their excellent efficacy and convenience of administering without severe adverse effects.
Its potential disadvantages include significant blood loss and operative hyponatraemia, need for hospitalization and possible prolonged catheterization, and low, but real, risks of urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, bladder neck contractures, and urethral stricture disease. Ultrasound is generally used for diagnosis, 1213 Veselka e BPH it is also being developed as a therapeutic tool related to the direct mechanical energy effects of low-frequency ultrasound.
A microbubble ultrasound contrast agent is widely used as contrast media in ultrasonography, yet it is acts as a cavitation nuclei or enhancer. Low-frequency ultrasound and microbubble have been shown to accelerate thrombolysis in vitro and in vivo. The present study was designed, in a canine model, to demonstrate the effect of low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles on Veselka e BPH.
A sulfur hexafluoride SF 6 -filled microbubble ultrasound contrast agent Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy was used in this study, which consisted of 59 mg of SF 6 gas and 25 mg of freeze-dried white powder.
After adding 5 mL of 0. We used 16 7-year-old male Beagle dogs diagnosed with hyperplasia nodule in the prostate by ultrasound, each weighing All procedures were done in accordance with guidelines of the Chinese Council on Animal Care. Protocols were approved by the local experimental ethics committee. Veselka e BPH lower abdomen and suprapubic region were shaved and the penis was retracted laterally to the right to provide clear acoustic access through Veselka e BPH abdominal wall to the prostate.
Transrectal ultrasound imaging and volume measurement ellipsoid approximation was performed using the ultrasound imaging system. The low-frequency probe was placed on lower abdomen Veselka e BPH where prostate image could be displayed by the 3. The animals were randomly Veselka e BPH into 4 groups: G1, G2, G3 and control; there were 4 dogs in each group. Each animal in the G1 group was injected with 2 mL of micro-bubble contrast agent without exposure to ultrasound; each animal in the G2 group was exposed to 21 kHz ultrasound without microbubble contrast agent injection; each animal in the G3 group was injected with Veselka e BPH mL of microbubble contrast agent combined with exposure to 21 kHz ultrasound; while the other animals without ultrasound exposure and microbubble therapy served as controls.
The kHz transducer with 20 mm in diameter was positioned on the lower abdomen skin near the penis. The cold acoustic coupling gel was placed between the skin and the probe surface to prevent reflections Veselka e BPH standing waves.
The peak acoustic amplitude in degassed water was measured using a calibrated poly- vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene needle-type hydrophone Toray Techno Co. The ultrasound Veselka e BPH was repeated for 3 times in 3 days with a 1-day interval, of 30 minutes each time. Blood samples 4 mL were collected from the femoral vein before treatment and after the last ultrasound exposure.
Following the last ultrasound exposure treatment, all animals were sacrificed immediately, Veselka e BPH the prostate was surgically removed. The slides were immersed in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase TdT buffer. The slides were washed with phosphate buffered saline PBS and incubated with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase HRP for 10 minutes.
Our experiments were performed with the understanding and consent of each subject, with the approval of China ethics committee. The mean volumes of the dog prostate in the 4 groups control, G1, G2 and G3 were Under a transmission Veselka e BPH microscope, the prostate cells from the dogs in the G3 group exhibited nuclear chromatin contraction and margination, nuclear shrinkage Fig. All of these changes were observed in the G2 group, but the degree was minor than in the changes in the G3 group.
Transmission electron microscope analysis of the prostate cells. Under an optical microscope, we observed infiltration of a large number of eosinophil granulocytes Fig. However, none of these changes were shown in the Veselka e BPH and G1 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the prostate cells. Terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling TUNEL assay was performed to detect apoptosis of prostate cells.
TUNEL positive cells were detected in the G2 and G3 groups arrowand more apoptosis was observed in the G3 group than that in the G2 group arrowwhile no positive cells were detected in the G1 and control Veselka e BPH. Several studies have investigated the targeted treatment using low-frequency ultrasound. Theoretically, micro-bubble-mediated ultrasound cavitation may be effective to Veselka e BPH BPH. As expected, low-frequency ultrasound in the presence of microbubbles significantly increased the pathological damages of prostate tissues, such as nuclear chromatin condensation, swelling of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum degranulation, basement membrane rupture and cell apoptosis, compared with other groups.
Although the pathogenesis of BPH is complex, it is reported that both tissue damage and oxidative stress may lead to compensatory cellular proliferation with resulting hyperplastic growth.
In the present study, the SOD significantly increased Veselka e BPH the G2 and G3 groups after treatment; this was especially obvious in the G3 group. No significant difference was observed in the G1 and control groups compared with pre-treatment. This suggests that treatment with low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles significantly improves BPH. Recently, increasing evidence indicates that nitric oxide is involved in modulating the prostatic smooth muscle relaxation; it is also involved in the control of the urethral outlet activity and in the nonadrenergic, non-cholinergic NANC -mediated cascades that control lower urinary tract storage and emptying.
As expected, our results also showed that iNOS was also significantly increased after treatment in the Veselka e BPH and G3 groups. Furthermore, Veselka e BPH volume predicts treatment outcome of BPH, which was assessed by either transrectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging and baseline serum PSA. However, the PSA was shown to be significantly reduced in the G2 and G3 groups; it was especially obvious in the G3 group.
This result concurs with previous studies. However, there are still some limitations in this study. We applied Veselka e BPH ultrasound 20 kHz to explore its treatment effect for BPH.
However, whether low frequency ultrasound 1 MHz is also effective or whether the therapeutic effect of 20 kHz ultrasound is superior to 1 MHz remains unclear. In addition, how the apoptosis factors such as caspase-3, Bcl-2 and survivin change remains under-investigated.
Further studies are still needed. Yang Shao-ling and Tang Ke-qiang are co-first authors. Competing interests: Dr. Yang Shao-ling, Dr. Tang Ke-qiang, Dr. Bai Wen-kun, Dr. Shen, Dr. Zhao Yi-wen, Dr. Lin Yan-duan, Dr.
Nan Shu-liang, and Dr. Hu Bing all declare no competing financial or personal interests. This paper has been peer-reviewed. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Can Urol Assoc J. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence: Dr. China; moc. This article Veselka e BPH been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Veselka e BPH Our objective is to assess the effects of low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles on benign prostate hyperplasia BPH.
Results: Histopathologically, the prostate cells exhibited nuclear chromatin contraction, mitochondrial swelling, degranulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, basement membrane rupture and cell apoptosis in the G2 and G3 groups; it was especially obvious in the G3 group, while no changes were observed in the control and G1 groups. Conclusions: Low-frequency ultrasound is effective in treating BPH; low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles improves the treatment efficacy.
Introduction Benign prostatic Veselka e BPH BPH is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate, ranking among the 10 most common Veselka e BPH in aging men. Methods Ultrasound system and microbubble The FS low-frequency ultrasonic processing system Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai, China was used in all experiments. Veselka e BPH and grouping We used 16 7-year-old male Beagle dogs diagnosed with hyperplasia nodule in the prostate by ultrasound, each weighing Ultrasound exposure The kHz transducer Veselka e BPH 20 mm in diameter was positioned on the lower abdomen skin near the penis.
Detection of blood samples Blood samples 4 mL were collected from the femoral vein Veselka e BPH treatment and after the last ultrasound exposure. Results Changes of prostate volume The mean volumes of the dog prostate in the 4 groups control, G1, G2 and G3 were Table 1 Prostate volume of dogs before and after treatment in the four groups.
Open in a separate window. SD: standard deviation; G: group. Histopathological analysis Under a transmission electron microscope, the prostate cells from the dogs in the G3 group exhibited nuclear chromatin contraction and margination, nuclear shrinkage Fig. Discussion Several studies have investigated the targeted treatment using low-frequency ultrasound. Footnotes Competing interests: Dr. References 1. Am J Manag Care. Curr Med Chem.
Roehrborn CG. McNicholas T, Kirby R. Lepor H. Alpha blockers for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Rev Urol. Barkin J. Patient Prefer Adherence.